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世界海洋日——海洋塑料的定义出炉啦!

海洋塑料环保

今天是“世界海洋日”(World Oceans Day)

联合国于第63届联合国大会上将每年的6月8日确定为“世界海洋日”,今年的海洋日主题——“为可持续海洋创新”(Innovation for a Sustainable Ocean)

海洋是地球的肺,为人类提供氧气;

海洋是生态圈的关键,蕴藏着丰富的资源;

海洋是生命的摇篮……

企业微信截图_15919449667999.png

然而人类活动正在使海洋世界付出可怕的代价,我们每个人都有义务保护海洋环境,认真管理海洋资源。

据2015年的一项研究报,道每年有880万吨塑料流入海洋中,按此速度到2050年海洋中塑料的总重量将会超过鱼类的重量。

美国海洋保护组织Ocean Conservancy研究指出,海洋塑料80%是来自陆地20%来自海洋(ocean-based),陆源塑料主要是产生于陆地上的塑料废弃物经河流或海岸冲刷带入海洋,海源塑料主要是海上作业的遗弃物,如渔网废弃船只等。

陆源海洋塑料一半以上来自5个快速发展的国家,中国,印尼,菲律宾,泰国和越南。另一研究指出,海洋塑料主要(90%)由世界上十条河流带入,其中四条在中国,长江,黄河,海河和珠江。


海洋塑料垃圾

作为塑料人,我们要如何减少塑料对海洋的污染,如何让海洋塑料成为资源而不是污染。

值此2020年世界海洋日之际,我们为海洋塑料定义,期望引发各界的关注,让人类能更好的管理海洋塑料,减少对海洋的污染。


定义


海洋塑料根据它所处的状态可以分为:

· 海洋(内)塑料(in-the-ocean plastics)

指那些已经存在于海洋中的塑料。这部分塑料有可根据对其收集处理的难易程度分为:

o 近海塑料 (nearshore plastic)- 离海岸线12海里/22.2公里(领海 territorial waters的概念)或50公里内的海洋(内)漂浮(深度小于200米)塑料 ;

o 远海塑料 (high-sea plastic)- 离海岸线22.2h或50公里外的海洋(内)漂浮(深度小于200米)塑料 ;

o 深海塑料(deep-sea plastic) - 处于深度大于200米海水中的塑料这部分塑料不易打捞,且多为微塑料,对海洋生物危害更大;

· 趋海塑料(oceanbound plastics)

指那些尚未进入海洋,但是如果不进行收集,它们就会进入海洋这部分塑料包括: 

o 海滩塑料(Shore plastics)- 消费者在海滩产生的废弃塑料,或由河流及雨水大风等自然力已经带到了海岸线的废弃塑料。

o 河流塑料(waterway plastics)- 进入河流湖泊水系的废弃塑料。

o 失控塑料(mismanaged plastics)- 指在离海岸线50公里范围内没有有效塑料回收体系的地区产生的消费后废塑料(PCR),这部分废塑料由于不能很好地回收,属于失控塑料,极有可能被雨水大风等自然力量带入到海洋。


Definition


Definition of the Oceanplastics

Oceanplastics is a general name for plastic waste that ends in the ocean or has a high probability of ending there and causes the negative impacts to the ocean environment. Based on its status, it can be categorized as:

· In-the-ocean plastics the plastics that have already existed in the ocean. The best way to mitigate their pollution to the ocean is to collect them back and make use of them. Based on the difficulty level to collect them back, they can be defined into three different sub-categories:

o Near-shore plastics – the floating (within the depth of 200 meters) oceanplastics that are within the 22.2 kilometers (the concept of territorial waters concept) of the coastline. It’s relatively easy to collect this part of oceanplastics and their impact to the ocean environment will most likely affect human beings.  

o High-sea plastics – the floating (within the depth of 200 meters) oceanplastics that are more than 22.2 kilometers away from the coastline. All the plastics in the garbage patches this type of oceanplastics. They have the huge volume but to recovery them is not easy.

o Deep-sea plastics – the oceanplastics that exist in the depth of greater than 200 meters. It’s very difficult to recover this part of the oceanplastics and most of them have already decomposed and are existing in the form of microplastic, which cause the ingestion harm to the ocean animals.

· Oceanbound plastics the plastic waste that has not reached the ocean yet, however, if it is not collected and well-managed, it will enter into the ocean within a year. These oceanplastics include:

o Shore plastics – the plastic waste that is disposed by the consumers on the beaches, or the plastic waste that has already been brought to the coastline area by the rivers, wind, rain, etc.

o Waterway plastics – the plastic waste enters the rivers, lakes already

o Mismanaged platics – the plastic waste generated within 50 kilometers of the coastline and there is no effective plastics recovery and recycling systems of post-consumer plastic waste in this area. Because of the lack of the good waste management system, this plastic waste has a high probability to be flushed to the ocean by the natural forces, such as rain, wind, etc. 

关于“海洋塑料的定义”,我们面向全行业征求修改意见,并在此定义的基础上,我们正汇集专家编制《海洋塑料再生利用产销监管链管理体系》标准,期望借此促进海洋塑料的再生利用,推动海洋塑料污染问题的解决,扫描下方二维码,请将您的建议发给我们。

第二十三届中国塑料循环展

刘丛丛

中国合成树脂协会塑料循环利用分会副秘书长

更多关于“海洋塑料再生利用产销监管链管理体系的研究成果及报告将于2020年7月12-13日在杭州召开的“ChinaReplas2020中国塑料回收和再生大会”上发布,敬请关注。


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